Dental and Medical Problems
2019, vol. 56, nr 4, October-December, p. 349–356
Publication type: original article
Color and translucency stability of novel restorative CAD/CAM materials
Stabilność barwy i przezierności nowych materiałów używanych w technologii CAD/CAM
1 Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt
4 Department of Restorative and Prosthetic Dental Sciences, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Minya University, Egypt
6 Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
7 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Canada
Background. The wide range of restorative materials available for use in the computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology requires a better understanding of their esthetic properties.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess the stability of the color and translucency of different CAD/ CAM restorative materials before and after being subjected to different staining solutions.
Material and Methods. A total of 160 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from glass ceramic (IPS-e.max®-CAD and Celtra Duo®), high-translucency zirconia (LavaTM Plus), resin nanoceramic (LavaTM Ultimate), and hybrid ceramic (VITA ENAMIC®) CAD/CAM blocks (5 groups, n = 32). The specimen color and translucency parameter (TP) were assessed using a spectrophotometer at baseline and after subjecting the specimens to different staining solutions (coffee, cola, ginger, and water). Changes in color (ΔE) and TP (ΔTP) were calculated. The data was analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc test (p < 0.05). The correlation between ΔE and ΔTP was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Results. Staining significantly affected the baseline color of all specimens. Ginger had the most significant effect on Lava Plus (ΔE = 4.01 ±1.2), cola on Celtra Duo (ΔE = 2.29 ±0.25) and coffee on Lava Ultimate (ΔE = 2.59 ±0.17). Generally, IPS-e.max-CAD showed the smallest ΔE. No significant differences in ΔTP were found between different staining solutions. Increased ΔE correlated with decreased translucency for all the tested materials and staining solutions.
Conclusion. Staining had a marked effect on the color and translucency of the tested CAD/CAM materials. The color change was staining solutionand material-dependent, with IPS-e.max-CAD showing the greatest color stability.
computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, translucency parameter, color change
komputerowo wspomagane projektowanie/komputerowo wspomagane wytwarzanie, parametr przezierności, zmiana koloru
- Wendler M, Belli R, Petschelt A, et al. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing. Dent Mater. 2017;33(1):99–109.
- Sen N, Us YO. Mechanical and optical properties of monolithic CAD-CAM restorative materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2018;119(4):593–599.
- Denry I, Kelly JR. Emerging ceramic-based materials for dentistry. J Dent Res. 2014;93(12):1235–1242.
- Kang SH, Chang J, Son HH. Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic. Restor Dent Endod. 2013;38(3):134–140.
- Awad D, Stawarczyk B, Liebermann A, Ilie N. Translucency of esthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials and composite resins with respect to thickness and surface roughness. J Prosthet Dent. 2015;113(6):534–540.
- Vichi A, Louca C, Corciolani G, Ferrari M. Color related to ceramic and zirconia restorations: A review. Dent Mater. 2011;27(1):97–108.
- Church TD, Jessup JP, Guillory VL, Vandewalle KS. Translucency and strength of high-translucency monolithic zirconium oxide materials. Gen Dent. 2017;65(1):48–52.
- Zhang Y. Making yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia translucent. Dent Mater. 2014;30(10):1195–1203.
- Lauvahutanon S, Takahashi H, Shiozawa M, et al. Mechanical properties of composite resin blocks for CAD/CAM. Dent Mater J. 2014;33(5):705–710.
- Zhi L, Bortolotto T, Krejci I. Comparative in vitro wear resistance of CAD/CAM composite resin and ceramic materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2016;115(2):199–202.
- Özarslan MM, Büyükkaplan UŞ, Barutcigil Ç, Arslan M, Türker N, Barutcigil K. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network material. J Adv Prosthodont. 2016;8(1):16–20.
- Pop-Ciutrila IS, Dudea D, Eugenia Badea M, Moldovan M, Cîmpean SI, Ghinea R. Shade correspondence, color, and translucency differences between human dentine and a CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic system. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2016;28(Suppl 1):S46–S55.
- Kanchanavasita W, Triwatana P, Suputtamongkol K, Thanapitak A, Chatchaiganan M. Contrast ratio of six zirconia-based dental ceramics. J Prosthodont. 2014;23(6):456–461.
- Lee YK. Influence of scattering/absorption characteristics on the color of resin composites. Dent Mater. 2007;23(1):124–131.
- Kurtulmus-Yilmaz S, Cengiz E, Ongun S, Karakaya I. The effect of surface treatments on the mechanical and optical behaviors of CAD/CAM restorative materials. J Prosthodont. 2018;28(2):e496–e503.
- Buyukkaplan SU, Özarslan MM, Barutcigil Ç, Arslan M, Barutcigil K, Yoldan EE. Effects of staining liquids and finishing methods on translucency of a hybrid ceramic material having two different translucency levels. J Adv Prosthodont. 2017;9(5):387–393.
- Johnston WM. Color measurement in dentistry. J Dent. 2009;37(Suppl 1):e2–e6.
- Johnston WM, Ma T, Kienle BH. Translucency parameter of colorants for maxillofacial prostheses. Int J Prosthodont. 1995;8(1):79–86.
- Paravina RD, Ghinea R, Herrera LJ, et al. Color difference thresholds in dentistry. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2015;27(Suppl 1):S1–S9.
- Lee YK. Criteria for clinical translucency evaluation of direct esthetic restorative materials. Restor Dent Endod. 2016;41(3):159–166.
- Erdemir U, Yildiz E, Eren MM, Ozel S. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: Influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period. J Appl Oral Sci. 2013;21(2):124–131.
- Arocha MA, Basilio J, Llopis J, et al. Color stainability of indirect CAD-CAM processed composites vs. conventionally laboratory-processed composites after immersion in staining solutions. J Dent. 2014;42(7):831–838.
- Cattani-Lorente M, Scherrer SS, Ammann P, Jobin M, Wiskott HW. Low temperature degradation of a Y-TZP dental ceramic. Acta Biomater. 2011;7(2):858–865.
- Denry IL, Peacock JJ, Holloway JA. Effect of heat treatment after accelerated aging on phase transformation in 3Y-TZP. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;93(1):236–243.
- Kelly JR, Denry I. Stabilized zirconia as a structural ceramic: An overview. Dent Mater. 2008;24(3):289–298.
- Turp V, Tuncelli B, Sen D, Goller G. Evaluation of hardness and fracture toughness, coupled with microstructural analysis, of zirconia ceramics stored in environments with different pH values. Dent Mater J. 2012;31(6):891–902.
- Novak S, Kalin M. The eﬀect of pH on the wear of water-lubricated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Tribol Lett. 2004;17(4):727–732.
- Saba DA, Salama RA, Haridy R. Effect of different beverages on the color stability and microhardness of CAD/CAM hybrid versus feldspathic ceramic blocks: An in-vitro study. FDJ. 2017;3(2):61–66.
- Belli R, Geinzer E, Muschweck A, Petschelt A, Lohbauer U. Mechanical fatigue degradation of ceramics versus resin composites for dental restorations. Dent Mater. 2014;30(4):424–432.
- Ferracane JL, Palin WM. Effects of particulate filler systems on the properties and performance of dental polymer composites. In: Vallittu P, ed. Non-Metallic Biomaterials for Tooth Repair and Replacement. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing; 2013:294–335.
- Borges AL, Costa AK, Saavedra GS, Komori PC, Borges AB, Rode SM. Color stability of composites: Effect of immersion media. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2011;24(2):193–199.
- Tan BL, Yap AU, Ma HN, Chew J, Tan WJ. Effect of beverages on color and translucency of new tooth-colored restoratives. Oper Dent. 2015;40(2):E56–E65.
- Mundim FM, Garcia Lda F, Pires-de-Souza Fde C. Effect of staining solutions and repolishing on color stability of direct composites. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18(3):249–254.
- Aliping-McKenzie M, Linden RW, Nicholson JW. The effect of Coca-Cola and fruit juices on the surface hardness of glass-ionomers and ‘compomers’. J Oral Rehabil. 2004;31(11):1046–1052.
- Housecroft CE, Sharpe AG. The group 15 elements. In: Housecroft CE, Sharpe AG. Inorganic Chemistry. 3rd ed. London, UK: Pearson Education; 2008:433–489.
- Heffernan MJ, Aquilino SA, Diaz-Arnold AM, Haselton DR, Stanford CM, Vargas MA. Relative translucency of six all-ceramic systems. Part II: Core and veneer materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2002;88(1):10–15.
- Ilie N, Hickel R. Correlation between ceramics translucency and polymerization efficiency through ceramics. Dent Mater. 2008;24(7):908–914.
- Vichi A, Carrabba M, Paravina R, Ferrari M. Translucency of ceramic materials for CEREC CAD/CAM system. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2014;26(4):224–231.